latest reviews and articles

Three’s a Stunning Crowd

9 January 2020 ~ The Wall Street Journal
the detail is the first scene in the handscroll, showing two scholars being helped by servants as they make their way down the garden path. Two servants hold up one of the scholars who seems unable to walk. The other scholar appears asleep standing up; one servant steers him while another literally has his back and holds a lantern aloft.
detail from “Evening Literary Gathering,” a Yuan dynasty handscroll

The title might sound hyperbolic for a show that focuses on just three paintings. But “The Eternal Feast: Banqueting in Chinese Art From the 10th to the 14th Century,” at the Princeton University Art Museum, surrounds these three stars with such a carefully selected supporting cast that the exhibition manages to trace the evolution of a genre while keeping us intimately engaged.

One of a number of varied displays that help visitors better understand the show’s three principal works

Banquets have throughout China’s history expressed the culture of their day while proclaiming the social status of their hosts. In the period covered by the show, their representation in art also reflects changes in the role of painting. That said, the show is not encyclopedic and, strictly speaking, only one of the principal paintings qualifies as eternal. Painted with lively calligraphic lines in the 10th or early 11th century, it depicts the prelude to a feast in the northern Liao Empire (907-1125) on six wood panels that enclosed a coffin, surrounding the deceased in the afterlife. . . (read full review)

Re-Exploring a Continent


24 October 2019 _ The Wall Street Journal

After closing to the public in 2013, the Brooklyn Museum’s suite of galleries for Asian and Islamic art are gradually reopening. In 2017, Arts of Korea came online, showcasing one of the museum’s prized collections. On Friday, refurbished, reconceived and at long last reinstalled, we will have Arts of China and Arts of Japan.

Old favorites are back, recent acquisitions await discovery, and works acquired decades ago yield new information. Greeting us once again are, among others, spectacular Chinese cloisonnés, and the head of a 13th-century Japanese temple guardian, so focused on fending off evil that his ears pull back, brows flex, and pupils widen. Additions to the collection include three boldly decorated Majiayao storage jars from around 3300 to 2050 B.C. and about a dozen contemporary Japanese ceramics. And a circa 10th-century ewer purchased in 1954 reveals itself even finer than originally thought.  (read full review)

Photo: Seated Buddha Shakyamuni, Liao dynasty, dated 965 or 1025, Brooklyn Museum (accession # 1999.42) The curator has placed contemporaneous ornamental plaques (access # 2014.56.1)  behind him.

Prosperity Comes in Many Forms

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19 October 2019 ~ The Wall Street Journal

The focus of a small exhibition at the Asia Society Museum, on view through Jan. 5, 2020, is a roughly 4-foot-tall painting of a haloed woman dripping with jewels. Red and green gems dangle from her headdress and hang from tassels as she stands on a giant lotus, afloat in space, unseen winds gently ruffling her silks. Cloud motifs adorn her skirt, whose hem curls and rolls like waves. Her right hand extends, open-palmed, as though she had just released a gift; her left holds aloft a round stone topped by a bright red flame, the hallmark of a wish-fulfilling jewel.

The iconography is clear: She is Kichijoten, Japanese Buddhists’ conception of Lakshmi, a popular Hindu goddess whose annual five-day festival of Diwali kicks off October 25. (read full review)

right: ‘Lakshmi (Kichijoten),’ possibly Meiji Period (1868-1912) Photo: Photography by Synthescape, courtesy of Asia Society

Global Trade Made Gorgeous

14 October 2019 ~ The Wall Street Journal

In 1799, the founders of the East India Marine Society in Salem, Mass., enjoined its members—all sea captains and merchants—to add “curiosities” to their cargoes for display at the Society. Since then, that cabinet of curiosities has evolved into the Peabody Essex Museum. As the cargoes themselves became the focus of scholarship and interest, its collection of works made in Asia for foreign buyers has grown to about 28,000 objects. Now, the museum’s newly opened 40,000-square-foot expansion features a reimagined installation of the Asian Export Art Gallery that touches on truths at once particular and universal, inspiring and sobering.

Screen Shot 2019-10-14 at 8.33.55 AMAlmost all of the more than 200 works on display date between the late 1500s and the mid-1800s. That is when the exchange of goods and ideas became truly global, with all manner of ships plying routes connecting East and South Asia, the Americas, Africa, Europe and, after the 1770s, Australia.

Virtually every piece has a story, whether the lacquer sewing table decorated with Chinese motifs and depictions of the Portuguese settlement in Macao; the South Asian Christ-child figure carved in rock crystal, its posture erect and serious as a Hindu or Buddhist deity; or the wallpaper James Drummond commissioned around 1800 so that, once home in Scotland, he could relive the 15 years spent in China. Not for him idealized gardens or generic scenes—designs some believe foreigners invented and, when they proved popular, Chinese imitated. As this re-creation of his salon attests, Drummond wanted to reimmerse himself in the daily bustle of the foreigners’ compound in Guangzhou (also referred to as Canton).

For some works, like a soaring 12-paneled screen with scenes of silk production, Asian artists used traditional techniques to create luxurious souvenirs for expatriates to send home. In others, they adopted Western techniques like oil painting or emulated European designs. Don’t miss the chair made around 1770 in Visakhapatnam, on the Bay of Bengal in India. Its design instantly brings to mind the work of Thomas Chippendale. But the intersecting lines of the back splat are intertwining snakes. Indian mythical animals perch on the top rail. And the surface isn’t wood, but ivory veneer with profuse decorations that, far from blending, pop, black on white.

We also see long-distance collaborations: Chintz painted or resist-dyed in India, then cut and sewn into children’s clothing in the Netherlands; swaths of leather that Dutch artists gilded and painted for wall coverings and which Japanese craftsmen mixed and matched into an eye-catching nobleman’s coat; a ceramic basin Mexican potters made in the early 1700s, inspired by Chinese blue-and-white porcelains. Not to mention the downright bizarre concoction French artists created around 1740: A delicately painted Japanese pot perched above a Chinese porcelain stag, the two joined by gilded ormolu and studded with colorful French porcelain flowers. By challenging us to fill in the blank “Made in ____?,” the label uses it to make a point about globalization.

Karina Corrigan, the museum’s curator of Asian export art, also highlights other dynamics behind this explosion of creativity. At one of the entrances, we’re greeted by a 40-inch blue-and-white porcelain vase, one of 151 porcelains “Augustus the Strong,” Elector of Saxony and King of Poland (1670–1733), traded for an entire regiment. This was after, as a video recounts, he had imprisoned a young alchemist who, tasked with turning base metals into gold, discovered the recipe for white, translucent porcelain, which had eluded Europeans for centuries. It was 1709, and Augustus immediately established a factory in Meissen, then set about amassing a collection of nearly 30,000 Asian porcelains.

For their part, European and Asian traders offer an early model of networking, exchanging gifts, letters and portraits. The last of these include a life-size figure of Calcutta (now Kolkata) merchant Raj Kissen Mitter, clad in the kind of fine muslin he sold, and the portrait of Houqua II, head of the Co-hong, a 13-member group of merchants who oversaw China’s foreign commerce. The position was highly lucrative, and the wealthy Houqua II shows off his status by adopting the refined dress of scholar-officials.

Significantly, the portrait was made in 1835, by which time British and Americans, with the help of local middlemen, were financing their Asian shopping sprees by smuggling massive amounts of opium into China. On the nearby wall, a botanical illustration of a poppy hangs beside reproductions of correspondence between Joseph Peabody Jr. , a Salem merchant, and Benjamin Shreve, a ship captain carrying Turkish opium to Canton with instructions from Peabody on what to buy with the proceeds. A five-minute video chronicles the human cost of such trades, then points to the devastation of our current opioid crisis. It doesn’t draw parallels with art patronage and Big Pharma, but raising the issue at the very center of the installation forces us to wrestle with it as we engage with yet more works of ingenuity, skill and beauty.

Connecting Man to the Mythic

15 September 2019 ~ The Wall Street Journal

As we step into the softly lighted galleries that the Metropolitan Museum of Art reserves for its collection of Chinese painting and calligraphy, the drone of construction work in the European section fades. The quiet twilight suits the theme of “Another World Lies Beyond: Chinese Art and the Divine,” a show that demands and rewards attention. Through more than 140 works, we travel to and across the border between this earthly realm and that of supernatural beings as conjured by artists from the early sixth to the early 20th centuries.

floating among pastel-colored close, three brightly dressed figures stand guard. The largest is haloed and holds a standard from which waves an orange dragon tail shaped pendant.
detail of ‘Military Door God’ (early 20th century), by an unknown artist Photo: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Nowhere is that demarcation more explicit than in a magnificent 1629 painting presiding over the gallery devoted to the beloved bodhisattva Guanyin, the quintessential listener and comforter. One of the show’s few works not part of the permanent collection, this 7-foot-tall painting by Zhou Bangzhang shows the bodhisattva as a multiheaded, thousand-armed, thousand-eyed deity sitting on a giant lotus inside a luminous disc. Beneath him, rows and rows of court officials and monks cluster around their king, while above him sits the Buddha, surrounded by deities. Guanyin looks down, but two of his many arms rise toward the Buddha, holding the divine figure aloft. The bodhisattva of compassion thus bridges the earthly and heavenly realms.  (read full review)


Astrolabe Tech Made… not so easy

May-June 2019 ~ AramcoWorld magazine

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Let me start with a confession: I am no engineering whiz, but I like to know how things work. I studied religion, and I often write about art, which is how I became entranced by astrolabes. Their beauty is mesmerizing, but their efficacy as an instrument leaves me perplexed. Imagine a medieval lass trying to ferret out the secrets of a smartphone, or even a dumb phone. Well, that’s how I feel, and I don’t like it.

So I’ll set myself a task: I, a Brooklynite, am going to find my way around an unfamiliar city—Boston—using an astrolabe. To get started, I ask Sara Schechner about this. She is a historian of science with a special interest in the history of astronomy, and she curates the Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments at Harvard University. “It can’t do that,” she says. “Astrolabes,” she explains to this liberal arts major, “aren’t navigation devices. They’re early computers.”….  read the whole article and watch the accompanying video  (there’s no firewall!)


3 thoughts on “latest reviews and articles

  1. For some reason I always found myself hanging out with minority students as an undergraduate. In the sixties there was not a lot of integration on the Lutheran college campuses Iattended and being a bit of an outcast myself I identified to a small degree with their apparent anxiety over the problems of assimilation on a white campus. The programs you wrote about would have made an incredible difference in their lives, I’m sure. When I was a graduate student, however, I noticed that one possible effect of a growing population of minorities in college in many courses was a “watering-down” of the material being taught. Those courses that retained a high level of academic expectation were deserted quickly by students who dropped out of such classes in droves. When I returned to school later to earn a secondary degree I found many such classes apparently eliminated from the course options altogether. I am sure that there were many factors behind these changes besides the changes in the student population, but I can not help but think from my personal experiences that our general curriculum might be slowly watered down to ensure student success. Western literature and culture seems to be slipping away, in my opinion, at an alarming rate. I fully acknowledge the need for all people of every ethnic heritage to receive a college education, Indeed, our nation depends on it.. I am also aware of the personal struggles that may plague students from different socio-economic backgrounds and applaud the steps being made to help them succeed in college programs. I also pray that our schools do not become mere training centers for specialized careers and that the liberal arts are not totally eliminated from college and university curriculums in order to made the road to a degree a little smoother for students who for various reasons are not sufficiently prepared academically to meet the abstract thinking skills such courses may require.

    1. Your concerns are shared by many and most valid. By all accounts, in Prof Hogan’s biology classs (the opening example I give in the piece) , the material stayed exactly the same; all that the professor changed were her teaching methods. It is of course easier to test for this in the sciences than it is for liberal arts classes where the quality of essays and discussions (breadth of knowledge, critical analysis, etc) is key. I am interested in seeing what a current study headed by Howard Gardner reveals about Liberal Arts programs (

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